LTE Analytics

LTE RRC, RLC and MAC visualization using Bubble Pack layout

How it works: This Visualization technique takes a document or a website page content as an input. The example I have taken is that of protocols and those who have worked on it will find it easy to understand but the concept is generic. In this case I have given the 3GPP protocol specification for RRC, RLC, MAC as an input after converting it to .txt format and removing the initial index/preface .e.g. I have used the services provided by It has the limitation that it will take only the first 100,000 bytes of the document and will ignore the content after that. RRC specification is the biggest so it would have truncated it because of the size but is sufficient to demonstrate the concept.

Understanding the visualization:It counts the occurrences of words and how they appear in the document. So bigger circle would mean higher number of relative occurrence as compared to other words. The circles which are neighbors are related to each other based on the occurrences. e.g. They might appear in the same line/string.

Underlying technology
This visualization use the Open Source javascript library D3.js ( ) . D3 stands for Data Driven Documents and it is used for creating visualization using HTML, CSS and SVG, which can be shown on the browser. This language has a very steep learning curve but then it is Open Source :)

RRC (Layer-3)
Complete list of words taken into consideration for RRC can be found at RRC word occurrences. Total number of words used for visualization is 1075. As can be seen from the visualization bigger circles are rrc, configuration, procedure,message,information,connection, handover, cell, radio and establishment. These are among the top features which RRC have.e.g. RRC Configures the lower layer, processes the messages received from the UE, Runs various procedures related to Connection, Handover and Radio Establishment, and performs the operations related to cells. Now if we pick the circle “cells”, Its neighbors are “measurements” as RRC performs cell measurements, “neighbouring” as RRC has the information about the neighbouring cells, “radio” as cells are about radio, “Transmission” and “cmas” as it does cmas transmission. File was truncated because of size limitation but in one image you can now about multiple aspects just by knowing how the document is written/described and with one click.

RLC (Layer-2)
Quite straight forward and simple. RLC works on the entity model handles sdu and data pdu and sdu, receives and sends it, interfaces with the upper and lower layer, has amd entity which sends/receives the status messages,support tmd mode, performs reordering of the received messages.RLC receives the “sdus” from upper layer and converts it to “pdus” for lower layer. This can be visualized by “pdus” and “lower” being neighbours as well as “sdus” and “upper”

MAC (Layer-2)
MAC does the scheduling,interfaces with the physical layer,works on harq and channels, knows rnti, maps logical channel to transport channels and so on. I expected “random” and “access” to be neighbors because of the random access procedure, but after checking I found that although Random and access were together but access was used more frequently with words like “mac”, “physical” and “radio”

Related Posts

One thought on “LTE RRC, RLC and MAC visualization using Bubble Pack layout

  1. Pingback: D3: visualization | coding beacon

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>